The Tucano Indigenous People of Colombia: Guardians of the Amazon Rainforest

The Tucano indigenous people, also known as the Tukano, are a culturally rich and resilient group with a deep history in Colombia. They are one of the largest indigenous groups in the country, with a population of over 30,000 people.

The history of the Tucano people traces back centuries, long before the arrival of Spanish colonizers in the Americas. They are believed to have inhabited the northwest Amazon rainforest region for generations, building a society closely intertwined with the Amazonian environment. The Tucano were skilled navigators of the rivers and relied on hunting, fishing and gathering for their subsistence. The Tucano have always lived in close harmony with nature and have developed a deep understanding of the plants and animals in their environment.

We work with and recommend booking flights with www.kiwi.com


During the era of Spanish colonization, the Tucano people, like many indigenous groups in the Americas, faced significant challenges. They were subjected to the arrival of European settlers, the spread of diseases to which they had no immunity and disruptions to their traditional way of life. Despite these challenges, the Tucano people have managed to maintain their cultural practices and great knowledge of the Amazonian ecosystem.

In the 20th century, the Tucano began to reassert their cultural identity. They established their own government and educational system. They are also working to preserve their language and culture.

Begin organizing your dream Colombian getaway right away by using our Plan My Trip page!


The Tucano primarily inhabit the Amazon rainforest, concentrated in the southeastern regions of Colombia, particularly in the departments of Vaupés and Guaviare.
Their territory is bordered by the Vaupés River to the north, the Papuri River to the east and the Caquetá River in the south.

This vast rainforest is a vital part of their identity, providing sustenance and spiritual significance.

Their geographic location has allowed them to continue living in harmony with the environment, while also confronting the challenges of contemporary society encroaching on their lands.
The Tucano have maintained their traditional culture and way of life. They live in small villages practicing subsistence agriculture. The Tucano also have a strong spiritual connection to the land.


The Tucano interact with modern Colombian society while striving to preserve their cultural heritage and land. They face challenges related to land rights, resource exploitation and the preservation of their unique way of life.

Efforts have been made to secure their land rights and recognition of their cultural significance. The Colombian government, in recent years, has worked to support indigenous communities like the Tucano in their pursuit of self-determination and cultural preservation.

The Tucano have a multifaceted system of religious beliefs. They believe in a supreme creator god named Yurupari and also in several other spirits, including those of their ancestors.
Their spirituality is deeply rooted to their connection with the natural world. They believe in the existence of powerful spirits and deities that inhabit the rainforest, rivers and other elements of their environment. These spirits are seen as guardians and providers and Tucano religious practices are aimed at maintaining harmony with them.


Take the first step in planning your dream Colombian vacation by using our Plan My Trip page now!

The Tucano conduct ceremonies and rituals to communicate with these spirits and seek their guidance and protection. Shamans, known as Payés, play a pivotal role in these spiritual practices, providing insight and leading sacred ceremonies.

The traditional Tucano economy is centered on subsistence agriculture, hunting, fishing and gathering. They grow crops such as cassava, maize and plantains, which complement their diet based on protein sources from hunting and fishing. The rich biodiversity of the Amazon rainforest provides them with a variety of fruits, nuts and medicinal plants.

In recent years, some Tucano communities have diversified their economic activities to include sustainable resource management and community-based ecotourism. These efforts provide economic stability while preserving their cultural practices and the delicate balance of the rainforest.

Start creating your dream Colombian adventure by using our Plan My Trip page now!

The Tucano have their own indigenous language, known as Tucano or Tukano. This language is essential to their cultural identity and serves as a means of preserving their traditional knowledge and heritage. Language revitalization efforts are ongoing to ensure the transmission of their cultural practices and traditional knowledge to younger generations.

Tucano culture is also preserved through oral traditions, storytelling, music and traditional crafts. The Tucano people are known for their intricate basketry, pottery and expressive body painting, which are integral to their cultural expressions.

Other Interesting Information:

  • The Tucano people are renowned for their vibrant traditional clothing, which is often adorned with intricate beadwork and feathers, reflecting the beauty and diversity of the Amazon rainforest.
  • They are skilled artisans and are known for their intricate woven baskets, which are both utilitarian and decorative.

The Tucano have a deep knowledge of the medicinal plants found in the Amazon rainforest and have greatly contributed to the field of ethnobotany.


The Tucano are known for their unique marriage practices. When a man wants to marry a woman, he must first ask her father for permission. If the father agrees, the man must then provide the family with a dowry of goods and services. The wedding ceremony is a complex and elaborate affair that lasts for several days.

The Tucano Indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon rainforest are guardians of a unique and resilient culture. As they navigate the challenges of the modern world while preserving their traditions and the Amazon rainforest, the Tucano people contribute to the broader efforts to protect Colombia’s indigenous cultures and the remarkable biodiversity of the Amazon. Efforts to secure land rights, preserve their language and support their sustainable future are vital for the continued well-being of the Tucano people and the Amazon rainforest itself.


Like to create or customize a fantastico package tour of Colombia? Use our Plan My Trip page to start planning your dream Colombian vacation now!

×